Thursday, November 25, 2010

RIZAL Chapter7-Paris to Berlin

Chapter 7
Paris to Berlin (1885-87)

v  Rizal went to Paris and Germany in order to specialize in ophthalmology.
Ø  He chose this branch because he wanted to cure his mother’s eye ailment.

In Gay Paris (1885-86)

v  After studying at the Central University of Madrid, Rizal, who was then 24 yrs old, went to Paris to acquire more knowledge in ophthalmology.
v  Maximo Viola – a medical student and a member of a rich family of San Miguel, Bulacan
v  Señor Eusebio Corominas – editor of La Publicidad
v  Don Miguel Morayta – owner of La Publicidad and a statesman
v  Rizal gave Editor Corominas (an article on the Carolines Question)
v  November 1885 – Rizal was living in Paris
§  He worked as an assistant to Dr. Louis de Weckert, a leading French ophthalmologist.
v  Juan Luna – great master of the brush; Rizal helped him by posing as model in Luna’s paintings.
1.    “The Death of Cleopatra” – where Rizal posed as an Egyptian priest
2.    “The Blood Compact” – Rizal posed as Sikatuna

Rizal as Musician

v  Rizal had no natural aptitude for music, and this he admitted. He studied music only because many of his schoolmates at Ateneo were taking music lessons.
v  He told Enrique Lete that he “learned the solfeggio, piano, and voice culture in one month and a half”.
v  He is also a flutist.
v  Some of his compositions are:
§  Alin Mang Lahi (Any Race) – a pariotic song which asserts that any race aspires for freedom
§  La Deportacion (Deportation) – a sad danza, composed in Dapitan

In Historic Heidelberg

v  February 3, 1886 – Rizal arrived in Heidelberg, a historic city in Germany famous for its old university and romantics surroundings.
v  He became popular among the Germans because they found out that he was a good chess player.
v  He worked at the University Eye Hospital under the direction of Dr. Otto Becker, distinguished German ophthalmologist.

“To the Flowers of Heidelberg”

v  April 22, 1886 – Rizal wrote a fine poem entitled “A Las Flores de Heidelberg” (To the Flowers of Heidelberg) because he was fascinated by the blooming flowers along the Neckar River, which is the light blue flower called “forget-me-not”.

With Pastor Ullmer at Wilhelmsfeld  

v  Rizal spent a three-month summer vacation at Wilhelmsfeld where he stayed at the place of a Protestant pastor, Dr. Karl Ullmer. The pastor has a wife and two children named Etta and Fritz.

First Letter to Blumentritt

v  July 31, 1886 – Rizal wrote his first letter to Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt who is the Director of the Ateneo of Leitmeritz, Austria.
§  Blumentritt is an Austrian ethnologist and he has an interest in the Philippine language.
v  Rizal sent Aritmetica (Arithmetic) book to Blumentritt which was published in 2 languages – Spanish and Tagalog – by the University of Santo Tomas Press in 1868. The author was Rufino Baltazar Hernandez.
v  Blumentritt became the best friend of Rizal.

Fifth Centenary of Heidelberg University

v  The famous University of Heidelberg held its fifth centenary celebration on August 6, 1886 where Rizal had witnessed the said celebration.

In Leipzig and Dresden

v  August 14, 1886 – Rizal arrived in Leipzig
v  He attended some lectures at the University of Leipzig on history and psychology.
v  He befriended Prof. Friedrich Ratzel, a famous historian, and Dr. Hans Meyer, German anthropologist.
v  Rizal found out that the cost of living in Leipzig was the cheapest in Europe so he stayed for 2 months and a half.
v  On October 29, he went to Dresden, where he met Dr. Adolph B. Meyer, the Director of the Anthropological and Ethnological Museum.

Rizal Welcomed in Berlin’s Scientific Circles

v  Rizal was enchanted by Berlin because of its scientific atmosphere and the absence of race prejudice.
v  Some scientists Rizal met are:
§  Dr. Feodor Jagor – German scientist-traveler and author of Travels in the Philippines
§  Dr. Rudolf Virchow – famous German anthropologist
§  Dr. W. Joest – German geographer
§  Dr. Karl Ernest Schweigger – famous German ophthalmologist

Rizal’s Life in Berlin

v  Five reasons why Rizal stayed in Berlin:
Ø  To gain further knowledge of ophthalmology
Ø  To further his studies of science and languages
Ø  To observe the economic and political conditions of the German nation
Ø  To associate with famous German scientists and scholars
Ø  To publish his novel, Noli Me Tangere
v  Rizal worked as an assistant in the clinic of Dr. Scweigger, and at night, he attended lectures in the University of Berlin.
v  He also took private lessons in French under Madame Lucie Cerdole.

Rizal on German Women

v  Rizal sent a letter to his sister, Trinidad, dated on March 11, 1886. In his letter, Rizal expressed his high regard and admiration for German womanhood. Rizal said that German woman is serious, diligent, educated and friendly.

German Customs

v  Some of the German customs Rizal admired:
Ø  On Yuletide season, people will select a pine tree from the bushes and adorned it with lanterns, papers, lights, dolls, candies, fruits, etc.
Ø  Self-introduction to strangers in a social gathering.

Rizal’s Darkest Winter

v  The winter of 1886 in Berlin was his darkest winter.
v  He lived in poverty because no money arrived from Calamba and he was flat broke.
v  He could not pay his landlord and he was eating only one meal a day.
v  His clothes were old and threadbare.
v  His health broke down due to lack of proper nourishment.
v  This is one of the most memorable days in the life of Rizal.